What are the Dewani Court and the Faujdari Court in India?

 
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The Dewani court and the Faujdari court were two types of courts established in India by the British East India Company in 1772. The Dewani court was responsible for civil cases, while the Faujdari court was responsible for criminal cases.

The Dewani court was headed by the Governor-General of Bengal, and it was composed of a council of British and Indian judges. The court applied the laws of the plaintiffs' religion, with Islamic or Hindu scholars deciding points of law. The Dewani court had jurisdiction over all civil cases in the Bengal Presidency, except for cases involving land revenue.

The Faujdari court was headed by a faujdar, who was a military officer with judicial powers. The court applied the Mughal criminal law, which was based on Islamic law. The Faujdari court had jurisdiction over all criminal cases in the Bengal Presidency, except for cases involving treason or offences against the state.

The Dewani court and the Faujdari court were abolished in 1861 when the Indian High Courts Act was passed. The new high courts were responsible for both civil and criminal cases.

Here is a table summarizing the differences between the Dewani court and the Faujdari court:

Characteristic Dewani court Faujdari court
Jurisdiction Civil cases Criminal cases
Headed by Governor-General of Bengal Faujdar
Laws applied Laws of the plaintiffs' religion Mughal criminal law
Jurisdiction Bengal Presidency Bengal Presidency
Abolition 1861 1861

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