How to Safeguard Yourself Against Wrongful Dismissal in India: Legal Protections Explained


Employees in India have several legal protections against wrongful dismissal, ensuring fair treatment and preventing arbitrary termination. Here's a breakdown of the key protections:

Statutory provisions:

  • Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 (ID Act): This law applies to establishments employing 100 or more workers.It requires employers to follow a specific procedure for termination, including providing notice, holding an inquiry, and giving the employee a chance to be heard. If the termination is deemed "unfair," the employee can be reinstated or compensated.
  • The Code on Wages, 2019: This code applies to all establishments and employees. It specifies the minimum notice period for termination based on salary and length of service. For example, an employee earning Rs. 15,000 or more must receive three months' notice.
  • Contractual rights: If the employee has a written employment contract, the terms of the contract regarding termination should be followed. In case of breach, the employee may seek legal remedy.

Common grounds for wrongful dismissal:

  • Termination without notice or without following due process: As mentioned earlier, employers must follow specific procedures for termination, depending on the applicable law and employment contract.
  • Termination based on discrimination: Termination based on caste, religion, gender, race, or other protected characteristics is illegal.
  • Retaliatory termination: Firing an employee for reporting illegal activity or exercising legitimate rights like forming a union can be considered wrongful dismissal.

Protecting yourself from wrongful dismissal:

  • Maintain records: Keep copies of your employment contract, payslips, performance reviews, and any communication related to your work. This evidence can be crucial if you need to challenge an unfair termination.
  • Understand your rights: Knowing your rights under relevant laws and your employment contract empowers you to raise concerns and seek legal help if necessary.
  • Seek legal advice: If you believe you have been wrongfully dismissed, consulting a lawyer can help you understand your options and pursue legal action.

Additional points to consider:

  • The burden of proof in wrongful dismissal cases often lies with the employee.
  • Legal proceedings can be time-consuming and expensive, so it's important to weigh the potential benefits against the costs before pursuing legal action.
  • Alternative dispute resolution mechanisms like mediation may be explored to seek a more amicable and faster resolution.

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